Can you sit still? part 2: research papers

Research part 2.

In this post   going to state the summary of the pre-existing studies people carried out, why looking at it was relevant to the brief and conclusions to what to incorporate in the finial animation.
The topics I researched was: colour, memory, child development, Anthropomorphism and fear.


Preference of colours and coloured stimulus structures depending on age.

Looking at this paper was relevant because it outlines young children like chromatic colours, however it doesn’t specify what age group for that result. Their lowest age group is 9- 11, therefore the result of chromic colours might not be the same for the preference of 6- 8 year olds.

Colour preferences in children. Effective graphic design for children at risk for cancer

looking at this study was somewhat relevant, but not relevant enough, because it investigates preference of colours, however the age group they investigated on is too young. Because they collected data from pre-schoolers.

Their results:
vivid colours for: yellow, red and blue.
Bright light tones for: yellow, green and purple.

light tones for: yellow, green and purple.
Pale tones for: red and blue.

In conclusion after reading this article going to read 1 or 2 more articles, compare and make a decision on colour for finial piece.


Color Psychology For Nursery Rooms. Learn How Color Affects Your Baby’s Behavior

Looking at this article is somewhat relevant because it looks at how colour affects babies, however at the same times it’s somewhat irrelevant because it’s talking about the effects on baby’s behavior- a lot younger then the target audience.
The target audience may react differently to babies.

In the article it dictates that:
Quote” Warm colours usually stimulate the mind and energize the body” “but not relaxing for sleeping.”
-orange: warm, cosy and comforting, stimulates social interaction and communication.
-yellow: cheerful, energetic, stimulate concentration and memory.
-Red:  inability to focus and   headaches. Energize and increase athletic ability.
-Pink: calming, agitation and anxiety.

Cold colours:  calming effect, feeling of   spacious area and relaxing. Dark shade- depressing.
-Blue:  calming, decrease anxiety and aggression.
-Green: calming, nurturing, increase concentration and reading ability.  Symbolize health and well-being.
-Purple- share attributes to red or blue depending on the shade. Pastel shades e.g. lilac, or lavender- calming.
-White: calming and breezy atmosphere. Associated with secretiveness, innocence, openness.
-grey: contemplate, calming, realizing, loneliness.

In conclusion: In the final piece, going to use yellow, green or blue.

Correlations between colour attributes and children’s colour preferences

Looking at this article is somewhat relevant because they’ve conducted a study on 7- 11 years olds in terms of colour of preference for “interior room “preference. The brief details 6-8 so the age group of the study is somewhat relevant to look at.

Summary of study:
63 children in that age group was shown 5 main hue groups.
45 colour samples was shown.
The result was the children preferred the colours: red, green, blue, and purple hue families.
Higher the saturation of colour the more preference for colour.

In yellow hue group: Lightness= positive correlation to preference.
Gender difference:  Females preferring: red and purple more then males.
To use colours: red, green, blue, and purple hue families in the final piece.
To use green as a gender neutral colour.

Consider “Lightness” of colour if use yellow colour and to use a high Saturation colour in the final piece.
– Need to research what they mean by “Lightness “ of colour.

New directions in colour studies

Looking at primary school range what is typically ages 5- 11 is somewhat relevant because the target audience for the final animation is 6-8 year olds. Looking at this data is relevant because can figure out what type of colours are best for the animation- so the child audience can remember more from the animation.
Conclusion: use bright colours, avoid dull colours.

Baddeleys model of working memory


Looking at Baddeley’s model of working memory is relevant, because  understanding what can improve memory can be beneficial to try and have the child viewer intake and remember more of the final animation.
The working memory model was coined by Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch in 1974 as an alternative to “Atkinson & Shiffrin’s ‘multi-store’ memory model” what was coined in 1968.

In conclusion after looking at the model of working memory:
going to include:
-words  that appear at the same time as the narration, as well  as pick the words carefully  to go with the visual animation.

-Include repetition, so they remember it more through the idea of the phonological loop.

-Another conclusion, when following the phonological loop, to have the script have  different sounding words together so the child audience can remember  more, because from the phonological loop explanation -same sounding words placed together are actually harder to remember.

Ready set remember –book

(page 7-9)
Looking at these pages of the books is relevant because can figure out how long each sentence could be spoken for the finial animation for the child audience to remember more.
For example In the book it outlines:

it also outlines: speed, length of information and interest.

In conclusion:
– Need to   research what things 6- 8 year old brackets are most interested in so they would pay attention and remember the information in the animation more.

-Short chunks of straight to the point information.

-Simple language, need to research exactly what sort of language is suitable for the age bracket.

-In the final piece for some sort of illusion of “interaction  to audience” for example rhetorical questions to make the child audience think more,  meaning they are processing the information more, meaning  they are more likely to  remember the information of the animation.

6-8 child development.

Looking at this book is relevant because it describes the child’s development between that age, for instance their common fears and mental development.
Looking at this book was relevant because  able to think about what to include, and not to include in the animation.

The book describes this age group:
*Fears- At this age they develop more realistic fears  for instance the dark and trend to expel unrationed ones e.g. demons.

In conclusion need to research the possible fears the child might have about and MRI scan and address them in the video, so they won’t fear it.

*”Their inner control is being formed “
conclusion for finial piece- tell them why they need to stay still. why?- so they would stay still.

*It details at this age range they can understand cause and effect.
 In conclusion, giving reasons why they need to sit still, they are more likely to comply.
Why for conclusion?: so they more likely to stay still or it can backfire and they move around on purpose if e.g. mention its wastes the radiographer’s time if they don’t stay still, so have to say how it specifically can affect them e.g. waste the child’s time.
*it dictates at age 7-8 they can easily imagine.
In conclusion – in the finial animation if  giving examples of what the MRI scan might be like or give examples of what they can “imagine “ in the head during the process. They might be more likely to sit still, entertained by their own “imagination”.
– Another thing to add in the animation- detailing for example the noise of the  MRI scan is harmless, so the child’s “ imagination” won’t go out of whack, them freaking out  what might cause them to move.
Why for conclusion?/plan of action : So the child would sit still, preferably don’t  mentally scar them or hurt them self’s moving around in the MRI because they should be sitting still after viewing animation.11.jpg

* It details at 6-8 children cannot be expected to be able to skilfully read or write however they should have formed basic knowledge of numbers.
 In conclusion: The original plan of including subtitles might not be such a good idea as well as it might distract them and they might not pay attention to the actual information and forget what they watch. In conclusion in terms of words appearing on screen if do plan to do this- only display keywords and if it’s a number to place the numerical symbols instead of spelled out.12.jpg

“Learn best when active while learning”
             In conclusion: add rhetorical questions, a pause then answer. So they remember more from the animation.

When Animals Act Like People in Stories, Kids Can’t Learn.

This article is relevant to look at, because it talks about anthropomorphic creatures. Was planning to add anthropomorphic animals in the finial animation. Looking at this research can make up the decision whether or not to add anthropomorphic characters in the final piece or not.

In terms of this article: it describes how the person set up a study. The person called “Ganea” obtained Boston toddlers at the age of 3-5. In the control group they had a group of toddlers was shown a booker that held illustrations of realistic    images of animals, which they had no familiarity with. The other group was shown “that included factual language, and half was  Anthropomorphic ”

Afterwards he asked the children about the animals, that they knew the basic physical attributes to the animals but not distinguish psychological differences.

The result was:  the children that saw the anthropomorphise version tend to anthropomorphise real animals compared to the  group that was shown non-Anthropomorphise animals .

Follow up experiment in Toronto confirmed the study.
The follow up study results showed:
anthropomorphic imagery +factual language =didn’t hurt learning
anthropomorphic imagery +anthropomorphic language= effected learning.

To rule out other variables’ they checked: social economic backgrounds, parent’s education and employment status and ethnicity. None of these had any effect to the findings.

Their conclusion from their study: Language is more important than imagery e.g. if real images but anthropomorphic language they are more likely to remember the wrong information. The anthropomorphic stories made the children have difficulty to learn in general.
After reading the research going to make sure the final animation:
-Has no  anthropomorphic language in it, the information is accurate as possible.
-To make sure the details are accurate as possible so the child remembers correctly as well as include small details to make it visually and language relevant e.g. the right doctors coat or the type of MRI hospitals use the child remember more – desensitization so the child won’t be as afraid of the process whereas if it’s the wrong type they might become afraid to it.
-By including both visually and language it goes towards the working memory model theory, for better memory when accessing more than one store type.13

Studies of Systematic Desensitization

In this article it outlines “hierarchy of fears”   developed by “Wolpe” in 1950’s. “And examples of studies based on it.  It  also outlines: when  participants  were exposed  from  what is considered to be the lowest  of the  hierarchy, then with steps going higher up the hierarchy where  the actual thing  is normally  the highest. The participants displayed lower fear levels when going through the fear hierarchy in steps, compared to going straight to the actual event, displayed in the control group.

Relevance to brief:
Looking at this article is relevant because can figure out how to reduce possible fear in the 6- 8 year old child audience.

In conclusion: Going to depict MRI SCANNING machine and the sound of the machine, in the actual finial animation. This would serve as a higher low range of the fear hierarchy. Exposing the child audience to the MRI scan imagery and sound so they won’t fear the actual MRI scan as much compared to not being exposed to any imagery/ sound of the MRI beforehand.

“Colour Preferences In Children. Affective Graphic Design For Children At Risk For Cancer”. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.
“Ready Set Remember”. N.p., 2006. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.
“Working Memory”. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.
Bušniaková, Marta. “Preference Of Colours And Coloured Stimulus Structures Depending On Age.”.Psychológia a Patopsychológia Dieťaťa (1977): n. pag. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.,. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.
Ganea, Patricia A. et al. “Do Cavies Talk? The Effect Of Anthropomorphic Picture Books On Children’s Knowledge About Animals”. Frontiers in Psychology 5 (2014): n. pag. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.
Ganea, Simona. “Color Psychology For Nursery Rooms. Learn How Color Affects Your Baby’S Behavior”. Home Decorating Trends – Homedit. N.p., 2014. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.
Google Books,. “New Directions In Colour Studies”. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.,. “Imagination – Illustration Friday | Blog”. N.p., 2012. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.
Gyu “Phillip” Park, Jin. “Correlations Between Color Attributes And Children’s Color Preferences”.Color Research & Application 39.5 (2013): 452-462. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.,. “Hidden In The Dark”. N.p., 2009. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.,. “Color Wheel”. N.p., 2011. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.
McLeod, Saul. “Systematic Desensitization | Simply Psychology”. N.p., 2008. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.,. “Pix For > Anthropomorphic Art Tumblr”. Web. 19 Jan. 2016.
TTC Mobile,. “Shall I Give It To You In Numbers?”. N.p., 2012. Web. 12 Jan. 2016.
Wikipedia,. “Baddeley’s Model Of Working Memory”. N.p., 2011. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.
Wikipedia,. “Baddeley’s Model Of Working Memory”. N.p., 2015. Web. 11 Jan. 2016.



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